As a political scientist and interdisciplinary scholar, my research focuses on questions related to citizenship, nation-building, justice, and human rights by applying a reproductive justice framework to Canadian immigration policy. Broadly, I am committed pursuing a community-engaged research program that illuminates the gendered and racialized dimensions of our political knowledge and its implications for citizenship and social justice. I am currently a PhD candidate in the Department of Political Science at Concordia University, specializing in public policy. I have a background in community-engaged research and hold a Master of Social Work from McGill University. My current project as a Joseph-Armand Bombardier CGS Doctoral Fellow focuses on the politics of pregnancy and birth, precarious migration as an issue of reproductive justice, and the radical potential of re-imagining citizenship and im/migration policy through the lens of care ethics.
My PhD research at Concordia University’s Department of Political Science examines the ways in which policy shapes the experiences of precarious status pregnant migrants living in Montreal, QC through the lens of reproductive justice. This research was funding through a SSHRC Joseph-Armand Bombardier Canada Graduate Scholarship.
In a context where migration has become a contentious global and national issue, and maternal health and reproductive rights continue to be leading priorities for the Canadian state, there is a disconnect between the ideals of Canadian exceptionalism and the discourses and policies surrounding reproductive rights for non-citizens. My dissertation research situates the lived experiences of pregnant precarious status migrants within Canadian immigration and reproductive politics and argues that immigration status is barrier to reproductive justice within Canada. This fieldwork included 24 in-depth narrative interviews with temporary status or undocumented women living in Montreal and 13 key informant interviews with service providers. These interviews revealed that women in these circumstances are often criminalized through discourse, policy, and their interactions in society, represented as taking advantage of immigration and social welfare policies. This representation is used to undermine the authenticity of their needs as pregnant women and justify restricted access to services.
My Master’s research at McGill University’s School of Social Work (2015) examined the intersection of care and Canadian immigration policy in the lives of refugee women as they negotiate various caregiving roles.
Canadian immigration policies show clear preference for economic immigration over more care-based immigration programs, such that some immigrants are constructed as contributing to society and others as dependent. Refugee women, who are more likely to be caregivers and less likely to be employed outside the home, are constructed primarily as care receivers. The value of their carework in their homes, in their communities, and transnationally is ignored. The ethics of care framework, together with scholarship emerging on carework, indicate that carework has been unjustly devalued in society. In order to better understand these dynamics, a thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with six women who migrated to Canada as refugees was conducted. These interviews show that refugee women engage in meaningful carework that contributes positively to the lives of those around them, demonstrating their own resiliency and agency. Canadian policies do not adequately recognize the value of care activities, and therefore their contributions go unrecognized and undervalued. If the true benefits and value of care were recognized, this would have an impact on Canadian immigration policy and refugee women, as caregivers, would be recognized as valuable and contributing members of society.
From 2016 to the present, I have been a team member of a SSHRC-funded multi-disciplinary research team (Principle investigators: Shannon Hebblethwaite, Stephanie Paterson, Dawn Trussell), based out of Concordia and Brock Universities, exploring the nexus of leisure and public policy during the transition to motherhood. Using a longitudinal design, we are interviewing 30 mothers from Montreal, QC and Toronto, ON at four time points (third-trimester, 3-months, 12-months, and 18-months post-birth). Our research is guided by the following questions: How do women experience leisure during the transition to motherhood? How are programs and policies, or lack thereof, aimed at facilitating the leisure experienced during this process? What role do leisure and the state play in the construction of mothers' identities within this context? The aim of this work is to reveal the ways in which leisure and related policies support or restrict understandings of motherhood, and in particular how policy comes to shape leisure and well-being during this transition.
From 2015 to 2018, I was a member of a SSHRC-funded research team (Principle investigators: Dr. Jill Hanley & Dr. Paul Eid), based out of McGill University, examining the role of third-party placement and recruitment agencies on the lives and employment trajectories of immigrant workers in Montreal, Quebec.
Within Canada, private, for-profit placement and recruitment agencies act an important intermediary in the international labour market and access to employment for a wide range of workers within Canada. There is growing concern that the central role of agencies may lead to social and labour rights abuses, especially for immigrant workers. The project took a longitudinal approach to studying these dynamics by interviewing 42 (im)migrant workers nine times over three years at four-month intervals. As well as a detailed case file analysis of files from two partnering organizations – the Immigrant Workers Centre and PINAY QUEBEC – was done in order to track common complaints and issues raised by workers to these migrant-serving organizations.
Larios, L., Hanley, J. Salamanca Cardona, M., Henaway, M. Dwaikat Shaer, N. & Ben Soltane, S. (Forthcoming 2020). Engaging migrant careworkers: examining cases of exploitation by recruitment agencies in Quebec, Canada. International Journal of Migration and Border Studies.
Private, for-profit recruitment and employment agencies are key intermediaries connecting migrant workers from abroad to employers in Canada. Despite this, there is a lack of effective regulation of recruitment agencies by the Canadian federal and provincial governments. The objective of this article is to provide a snapshot of the problem, based on the empirical analysis of the casework of one community organization in Montreal, PINAY, highlighting the multiple compounding effects of this type of exploitation and to highlight the role that community-based organizations play in supporting migrant workers faced with them. Our analysis identifies three types of exploitation: exploitation of financial need, exploitation of immigration precarity, and exploitation of relationships. We conclude the article by discussing community level responses to the exploitation migrant works face in their interactions with recruitment agencies and reflect upon the implications of Quebec’s recent amendment of its Labour Standards.
Hanley, J., Larios, L., Salamanca Cardona, M. Henaway, M., Dwaikat Shaer, N., & Ben Soltane, S. (Forthcoming 2020). Transportation and temp agency work: Risks and opportunities for migrant workers/Le transport et le travail temporaire: Risques et opportunités pour les travailleurs migrants. Cahiers géographiques du Québec, Thématique : La droit à la ville : les immigrants dans l’espace urbain. 62(177).
Access to transportation has long been recognized as key to people’s employment outcomes. Being able to get to work affordably, safely and on time makes all the difference in terms of job security and satisfaction. Recently, the rise of temporary placement agencies, especially as a door of entry into the labour market for many newcomers to Canada, raises new questions. In this article, we present the findings of a 3-year longitudinal study that followed 42 (im)migrant temp agency workers in 5 sectors to explore the trajectory of their experiences. We analyze the role of transportation within their employment and make the argument that access to transportation – and especially the lack of it – is an important factor in temp agencies’ control and exploitation of workers. At the same time, those seeking to organize workers can look to the moment of transportation to and from work as an opportunity.
Larios, L. (2019). Near and far, with heart and hands: Carework in the context of refugee settlement in Canada. International Journal of Care and Caring 3(2): 263-278. DOI: 10.1332/239788219X15473079319291
Within immigration politics, refugee women are often constructed as care receivers, and the value of their care work in their homes, in their communities and transnationally is absent from immigration politics. The research explores how refugee women understand and situate their relational identity, the meaning of their caring actions and how this is shaped by their relative position within Canadian society. The goal of this analysis is to highlight the importance of care work and how it is shaped by and reproduces inequalities, and to offer counter-narratives to those that have emerged within immigration politics on the contributions of refugee women to Canadian society.
Canadian immigration policies went through numerous changes under the Conservative party leadership of Stephen Harper from 2006 to 2015. This article provides an empirical account of immigration policy change during this era and suggests that of state-centred venue shopping can effectively account for the Harper's immigration record. In particular, it documents the ways in which immigration policies have expanded into international and regional venues, opened new venues to non-state actors, further decentralized into subnational venues and reinvested into traditional administrative and executive venues for policy making. The analysis suggests that the redeployment of the state into new and expanding venues aims to demonstrate state capacity and legitimacy as a nodal actor in immigration policy.
Hanley, J. Larios, L., Salamanca Cardona, M. Henaway, M., Dwaikat Shaer, N., Ben Soltane, S. & Eid, P. (2017). Gender dynamics of temporary placement agency work: (Im)migrants, know your place! Canadian Diversity 14(2), pp. 37-42.
For newcomers to Canada, placement agencies (or temp agencies) are a common path into a labour market that is difficult to access. It is widely documented that temp agencies are linked to precarious work conditions, dangerous occupational health conditions, racialized and gendered division of labour, and the exploitation of precarious immigration statuses. Our study shows that gender plays out strongly in (im)migrants’ experiences of temp agency work. Regardless of their previous education or experiences it is their immigration status, race and gender that seemed to dictate the types of work available to them. We discuss five elements of workers’ experiences that were strongly shaped by gender: their sectors of work; their tasks within the workplace; gender-normative bullying; sexual harassment and assault; and their management of work-life balance.
Hanley, J., Larios, L., & Koo, J.-H. (2017). Does Canada care about migrant caregivers? Implications under the reformed Caregiver Program. Canadian Ethnic Studies 29(2): 121-140. DOI: 10.1353/ces.2017.0015
Domestic and caregiving work have been part of the Canadian fabric since our colonial founding and have long represented one of the most easily accessible routes for migration open to women. Until very recently the Live-In Caregiver Program (LCP) operated as the primary program in Canada facilitating this labour migration. While the LCP has been replaced by the Caregiver Program (CP), it has yet to be determined how these changes will impact migrant caregivers. We suggest that many lessons can be drawn from our knowledge of migrant caregivers’ experiences under the LCP that can help us understand the dynamics of new immigration policies. Using the global care chain framework, we consider here whether Canada’s caregiver migration policy demonstrates a concern for the wellbeing of migrant caregivers as workers, as family members and as citizens. Our analysis suggests that the CP does not adequately address the concerns raised through the global care chain critique. Rather, the CP continues and deepens the trend of using immigration policy to hold people in substandard employment, with very little care for migrant caregivers whether in terms of their labour rights, their family relationships or their sense of belonging and citizenship.
Larios, L. (Forthcoming 2020). ‘Because we are mothers’: The invisibility of migrant mother care labour in the Canadian context. In K. Levasseur, S. Paterson, & L. Turnbull (eds.), Mothering and Welfare: Depriving, Surviving, Thriving. Bradford, ON: Demeter Press.
PINAY Quebec (2016). Ineffective regulation of recruitment agencies in Quebec: Experiences and perspectives of Live-in Caregivers. Montreal, QC: PINAY Quebec.
Larios, L., Lyle, M., Paille, M. & Smith, M. (2013). Investigating access to health and social services for residents of Manitoba Housing. Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Centre for Health Policy.
Larios, L. & Spring, L. (2013). Fast Facts – Community based organizations: A place at the child welfare table. Winnipeg, MB: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives – Manitoba Office.
Larios, L. (2013). Fast Facts – They have stood by me: Supporting refugee families in Winnipeg. Winnipeg, MB: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives – Manitoba Office.
Larios, L. (2013). They have stood by me: Supporting refugee families in Winnipeg. Winnipeg, MB: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives – Manitoba Office.
Guacher, M. & Larios, L. (2020, January 17). Birth tourism and the demonizing of pregnant migrant women. Policy Options.
Paterson, S. & Larios, L. Emotional Problems: Policymaking and empathy through the lens of transnational motherhood. Critical Social Policy.
Hanley, J., Larios, L., Ricard-Guay, A., Meloni, F. & Rousseau, C. Pregnant & undocumented: Taking work into account as a social determinant of health. International Journal of Migration, Health & Social Care.
Abji, S. & Larios, L. Migrant justice as reproductive justice: Birthright citizenship and the politics of immigration detention for pregnant women in Canada. Citizenship Studies, Special Issue: Abolishing detention: Bridging prison and migrant justice.
Larios, L. Les immigrants au statut précaire et les personnes sans statut au Québec. In M. Paquet (ed.), Le Québec comme d’«société d’immigration» contemporaine. Montreal, QC: Presses de l’Université de Montréal.
Gagnon, A. & Larios, L. The politicization of immigration at the sub-national level: Election discourse in Quebec and Ontario.
Porter, J., Hanley, J., Larios, L. Pushing for equity, pulling at heartstrings: Factors enabling perinatal care access for uninsured migrants.
Hanley, J., Azari, L. R., Porter, J., Cloos, P., Larios, L. Access to Health Care for Uninsured Pregnant Migrants: Does Canada live up to the WHO recommendations for a positive pregnancy?
“(Re)producing precarity: Impacts of the ‘passport baby’ narrative on access to health care for migrant women.” Protecting birthright citizenship in Canada. Presented at Metropolis Canada Conference. Winnipeg, MB. March 19-21, 2020.
“Reproductive precarity: Immigration status as structural violence for pregnant migrants in Canada.” Paper presentation at the Canadian Political Science Association (CPSA) Conference. Western University, London, ON. June 2-4, 2020.
“Intersectional feminism, equality, and the everyday: Policy, practice, and activism/action.” Panelist at the Canadian Political Science Association (CPSA) Conference. Western University, London, ON. June 2-4.
“Re-imagining immigration through the ethics of care: Reproductive justice and precarious status migration in Canada.” Paper presentation at the International Conference on Public Policy (ICPP4). Concordia University, Montreal, QC. June 26-28, 2019; Paper presentation at the Canadian Political Science Association (CPSA) Conference. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. June 4-6, 2019.
“Pregnancy without permanency: A critical feminist look at reproductive justice for migrant women in Canada.” Paper presentation at the International Conference on Public Policy (ICPP4). Concordia University, Montreal, QC. June 26-28, 2019; Paper presentation at the Canadian Associations for Social Work Education (CASWE) Conference. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. June 3-6, 2019.
Feministing in political science: Stories from the front lines. Panelist at the Canadian Political Science Association (CPSA) Conference. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. June 4-6, 2019.
“Emotional States: Transnational motherhood, policymaking, and the politics of empathy in Canada.” Paper presentation at the Canadian Political Science Association (CPSA) Conference. University of Regina, Regina, SK. May 30-June 1, 2018. With Stephanie Paterson.
“Making sense of Harper’s immigration legacy.” Paper presentation at the Canadian Political Science Association (CPSA) Conference. Ryerson University, Toronto, ON. May 30-June 1, 2017. With Mireille Paquet.
“Consent, Circumvent, or Contest? The choices of (im)migrant agency workers facing labour violations in Montreal. Paper presentation at the Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) Conference. Ryerson University, Toronto, ON. May 30-June 1, 2017. With Jill Hanley.
“Near and far, with heart and hands: The impact and value of carework in the context of refugee policy and settlement.” Paper presentation at the Canadian Association for Refugee and Forced Migration (CARFMS) Conference. University of Victoria, Victoria, BC. May 15-18, 2017.
1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West
Montreal, QC H3G 1M8